Saturday, December 13, 2014

Chocolate colored blood

Hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying molecule, normally exists predominantly in the ferrous state (Fe2+), which is its functional form. Hemoglobin can also exist in the ferric state (Fe3+), known as methemoglobin.
High concentrations of methemoglobin (methemoglobinemia) cause blood to appear brown and ‘chocolaty’ in color - chocolate colored blood.
Methemoglobin can occur because of heredity, exposure to drugs and chemicals.
Ramanamurty SV. Methemoglobinemia: A Reappraisal with an Indian Perspective. Medicine Update 2013. Chapter 77. Available Accessed 13 December 2014.

Blood, chocolate

Monday, July 28, 2014

Coffee bean nuclei

Brenner tumor (named after the German physician Fritz Brenner 1877 – 1969) is a rare ovarian tumor apparently derived from the surface epithelium – outer lining - of the ovary. The tumor is usually benign (not cancerous), but can occasionally be malignant (cancerous). Under the light microscope, the nuclei of Brenner tumor cells may have a longitudinal groove similar in look to the longitudinal groove of coffee beans – coffee bean nuclei.
Borah T, Mahanta RK, Bora BD, Saikia S. Brenner tumor of ovary: An incidental finding. J Midlife Health. 2011 2(1):40-1. Go to reference

Brenner tumor, Coffee beans

Monday, June 2, 2014

Raisin-like nucleus

Scrapping cells off the cervix (neck of the womb) and analyzing them under the light microscope for changes that may point to the start of cancer of the cervix – Pap smear/test – has greatly reduced deaths from this cancer because treatment can be offered before the pre-cancerous changes worsen.
An abnormality that may be seen under the microscope is a cell nucleus that looks like a raisin (dried grape) – raisinoid nucleus.
The Pap smear - a screening method - is named after its inventor, the Greek doctor Georgios Papanikolaou (1883 – 1962). Most cases or cervical cancer are caused by sexually transmitted human papilloma viruses.
Histology blog (HistoQuarterly). “Koilocytes have a clear halo around the nuclei, and the nuclei are raisinoid (literally look like raisins) [arrows] Apr 2013, 8:37 a.m. Tweet. Go to reference

Pap smear/test and Raisins