Saturday, December 13, 2014

Chocolate colored blood

Hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying molecule, normally exists predominantly in the ferrous state (Fe2+), which is its functional form. Hemoglobin can also exist in the ferric state (Fe3+), known as methemoglobin.
High concentrations of methemoglobin (methemoglobinemia) cause blood to appear brown and ‘chocolaty’ in color - chocolate colored blood.
Methemoglobin can occur because of heredity, exposure to drugs and chemicals.
Reference:
Ramanamurty SV. Methemoglobinemia: A Reappraisal with an Indian Perspective. Medicine Update 2013. Chapter 77. Available http://www.apiindia.org/medicine_update_2013/chap77.pdf Accessed 13 December 2014.


Blood, chocolate


Monday, July 28, 2014

Coffee bean nuclei

Brenner tumor (named after the German physician Fritz Brenner 1877 – 1969) is a rare ovarian tumor apparently derived from the surface epithelium – outer lining - of the ovary. The tumor is usually benign (not cancerous), but can occasionally be malignant (cancerous). Under the light microscope, the nuclei of Brenner tumor cells may have a longitudinal groove similar in look to the longitudinal groove of coffee beans – coffee bean nuclei.
Reference:
Borah T, Mahanta RK, Bora BD, Saikia S. Brenner tumor of ovary: An incidental finding. J Midlife Health. 2011 2(1):40-1. Go to reference

Brenner tumor, Coffee beans
 

Monday, June 2, 2014

Raisin-like nucleus

Scrapping cells off the cervix (neck of the womb) and analyzing them under the light microscope for changes that may point to the start of cancer of the cervix – Pap smear/test – has greatly reduced deaths from this cancer because treatment can be offered before the pre-cancerous changes worsen.
An abnormality that may be seen under the microscope is a cell nucleus that looks like a raisin (dried grape) – raisinoid nucleus.
The Pap smear - a screening method - is named after its inventor, the Greek doctor Georgios Papanikolaou (1883 – 1962). Most cases or cervical cancer are caused by sexually transmitted human papilloma viruses.
Reference:
Histology blog (HistoQuarterly). “Koilocytes have a clear halo around the nuclei, and the nuclei are raisinoid (literally look like raisins) [arrows] twitpic.com/cgp9ef3 Apr 2013, 8:37 a.m. Tweet. Go to reference

Pap smear/test and Raisins

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Watered-down, fat-free milk

Ejecting fluid during sexual activity and orgasm is not usual for females. However, two physiologic (normal processes) have been described, squirting/gushing and female ejaculation. Squirting/gushing refers to the expulsion of a relativity large volume of clear fluid through the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body); this fluid originates from the urinary bladder and resembles diluted urine biochemically.
Female ejaculation refers to the passage of a white scanty fluid originating from the female prostate that resembles watered-down, fat-free milk; biochemically female ejaculate resembles semen except that it does not contain sperms.
The female prostate - previously called Skene’s paraurethral gland – surrounds the female urethra and empties into it or just beside it; about half to two thirds of women have a female prostate.
Reference
Rubio-Casillas A, Jannini EA. New insights from one case of female ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2011 8(12):3500-4. Go to reference

Milk, female prostate gland opening

Sunday, July 21, 2013

Pancake brain

The front part of the brain, the forebrain also known as the prosencephalon normally separates into two halves (cerebral hemispheres) during the development of the unborn baby. Failure of the prosencephalon to separate leads to the rare disease, holoprosencephaly (HPE). The prosencephalon may fail to separate to different extents; where failure to separate is complete, alobar HPE results, which is the most severe form of HPE. The brain in alobar HPE resembles a pancake – pancake brain.
Instead of the normal two fluid-filled cavities in the front of the brain, in alobar HPE there is a single abnormal fluid-filled cavity; facial malformation frequently complicates HLE.
Cyclopia, arhinencephaly and DeMyer sequence are some of HPE’s synonyms.
Reference
Situ D, Reifel CW, Smith R, Lyons GW, Temkin R, Harper-Little C, Pang SC. Investigation of a cyclopic, human, term fetus by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). J Anat, 2002 200(5):431-8. Go to reference

 
Pancakes, developing brain