Monday, June 2, 2014

Raisin-like nucleus

Scrapping cells off the cervix (neck of the womb) and analyzing them under the light microscope for changes that may point to the start of cancer of the cervix – Pap smear/test – has greatly reduced deaths from this cancer because treatment can be offered before the pre-cancerous changes worsen.
An abnormality that may be seen under the microscope is a cell nucleus that looks like a raisin (dried grape) – raisinoid nucleus.
The Pap smear - a screening method - is named after its inventor, the Greek doctor Georgios Papanikolaou (1883 – 1962). Most cases or cervical cancer are caused by sexually transmitted human papilloma viruses.
Histology blog (HistoQuarterly). “Koilocytes have a clear halo around the nuclei, and the nuclei are raisinoid (literally look like raisins) [arrows] Apr 2013, 8:37 a.m. Tweet. Go to reference

Pap smear/test and Raisins

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Watered-down, fat-free milk

Ejecting fluid during sexual activity and orgasm is not usual for females. However, two physiologic (normal processes) have been described, squirting/gushing and female ejaculation. Squirting/gushing refers to the expulsion of a relativity large volume of clear fluid through the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body); this fluid originates from the urinary bladder and resembles diluted urine biochemically.
Female ejaculation refers to the passage of a white scanty fluid originating from the female prostate that resembles watered-down, fat-free milk; biochemically female ejaculate resembles semen except that it does not contain sperms.
The female prostate - previously called Skene’s paraurethral gland – surrounds the female urethra and empties into it or just beside it; about half to two thirds of women have a female prostate.
Rubio-Casillas A, Jannini EA. New insights from one case of female ejaculation. J Sex Med, 2011 8(12):3500-4. Go to reference

Milk, female prostate gland opening

Sunday, July 21, 2013

Pancake brain

The front part of the brain, the forebrain also known as the prosencephalon normally separates into two halves (cerebral hemispheres) during the development of the unborn baby. Failure of the prosencephalon to separate leads to the rare disease, holoprosencephaly (HPE). The prosencephalon may fail to separate to different extents; where failure to separate is complete, alobar HPE results, which is the most severe form of HPE. The brain in alobar HPE resembles a pancake – pancake brain.
Instead of the normal two fluid-filled cavities in the front of the brain, in alobar HPE there is a single abnormal fluid-filled cavity; facial malformation frequently complicates HLE.
Cyclopia, arhinencephaly and DeMyer sequence are some of HPE’s synonyms.
Situ D, Reifel CW, Smith R, Lyons GW, Temkin R, Harper-Little C, Pang SC. Investigation of a cyclopic, human, term fetus by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). J Anat, 2002 200(5):431-8. Go to reference

Pancakes, developing brain

Tuesday, December 11, 2012

Cherry red epiglottis

In the neck region the airway (larynx) and the passage (esophagus) for food, drink and so on  are near each other. If food and other material accidentally go into the airway death from airway obstruction can result.
The epiglottis is a flexible flap of tissue that prevents food and other material from going into the airway during swallowing. Due to for example, bacterial infection, the epiglottis and adjacent tissues can become (inflamed) swollen and red – cherry red epiglottis.
When inflamed, the epiglottis itself can obstruct the airway with fatal consequences; consequently visualizing the cherry red epiglottis should only be done for instance in an operating theatre with airway management specialists in attendance.
Vaccination with the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine helps prevent epiglottitis (inflammation of the epiglottis) and other diseases caused by the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae.
Hung TY  et al. Bedside ultrasonography as a safe and effective tool to diagnose acute epiglottitis. Am J Emerg Med, 2011, 29(3):359.e1-3. Go to reference
Go to Improbable version of this post

Epiglottis, Cherry

Sunday, November 4, 2012

Salt and pepper retinopathy

Salt and pepper retinopathy refers to tiny light specks (hypopigmentation) interspersed among tiny dark specks (hyperpigmentation) that may be seen in those affected by the rubella virus when the eye’s back (retina) is viewed using special equipment.
These specks resemble salt and pepper in appearance – salt and pepper retinopathy. Besides rubella virus infection, syphilis and the toxic effects of some drugs can produce salt and pepper retinopathy. Salt and pepper retinopathy normally does not affect vision.
Vaccination of both males and females against the rubella virus helps prevent harmful effects of the rubella virus on the baby such as blindness, deafness, heart defects and other dreadful manifestations of the congenital rubella syndrome.
Please see also the celery-stick sign (click here).
Damasceno N, Damasceno E, Souza E. Acquired unilateral rubella retinopathy in adult. Clin Ophthalmol, 2011 5:3-4. Go to reference
Go to Improbable version of this post

Salt and pepper shakers, salt and paper retinopathy