Saturday, August 27, 2016
The scrotum ‘houses’ the testes and helps to keep them at a lower temperature than that of the rest of the body because sperm production takes place best at cooler temperatures.
In a rare disease affecting the scrotum’s skin, nodules of calcium accumulate within it - scrotal calcinosis - and because of their raised mottled look the nodules give the scrotum an appearance not unlike a strawberry in some cases – strawberry scrotum.
Scrotal calcinosis is not life threatening, its underlying cause is unknown. Affected men usually between 20 and 40 years have normal measurements of calcium in their blood. Treatment for scrotal calcinosis often for cosmetic reasons is by surgical removal of the affected scrotal region.
Singh I, Singh N, Sharma N, Agarwal S, Tandon R. Strawberry scrotum (Idiopathic nodular scrotal calcinosis): Image in surgery. Indian J Surg, 2005;67:159. Go to reference
Normal scrotum, Strawberry
Posted by Gwinyai Masukume, MB ChB(UZ), Dip Obst(SA), MSc(Wits) at 3:58 PM
Tuesday, February 17, 2015
Under the light microscope in some cells of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) the nucleus is ring-shaped with a ‘central opening’ thus resembling a doughnut in look – doughnut cell.
ALCL is a rare cancer of the lymphocytes (the T-lymphocyte more precisely), a kind of white blood cell, thus the designation lymphoma. Anaplastic refers to cells that are abnormal in shape and function and large-cell pertains to the relatively big cells of this cancer.
Depending on individual circumstances treatment for ALCL can include, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery, etc.
Singh S, Gupta N, Tekta GR. Imprint cytology facilitating the diagnosis of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma of iliac fossa. J Cytol, 2012 29(4):267-9. Go to reference
Doughnut cell, doughnut
Posted by Gwinyai Masukume, MB ChB(UZ), Dip Obst(SA), MSc(Wits) at 9:06 AM
Sunday, February 15, 2015
Under the light microscope in classic cases of the soft tissue cancerous tumor fibrosarcoma, the cells are arranged like the way the branching spines of a herring skeleton are arranged – herringbone architecture.
An architecture in which a column of cells resembling one herring skeleton is oriented one way and another separate cell column again resembling the skeleton is disposed in a different direction. Under the microscope there can be several such columns.
Fibrosarcoma is a rare cancer typically afflicting adults and can be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. The soft tissues are those which support, connect or surround the body’s other structures.
Folpe AL. Fibrosarcoma: a review and update. Histopathology. 2014 64(1):12-25. Go to reference
Posted by Gwinyai Masukume, MB ChB(UZ), Dip Obst(SA), MSc(Wits) at 9:32 AM
Saturday, December 13, 2014
Hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying molecule, normally exists predominantly in the ferrous state (Fe2+), which is its functional form. Hemoglobin can also exist in the ferric state (Fe3+), known as methemoglobin.
High concentrations of methemoglobin (methemoglobinemia) cause blood to appear brown and ‘chocolaty’ in color - chocolate colored blood.
Methemoglobin can occur because of heredity, exposure to drugs and chemicals.
Ramanamurty SV. Methemoglobinemia: A Reappraisal with an Indian Perspective. Medicine Update 2013. Chapter 77. Available http://www.apiindia.org/medicine_update_2013/chap77.pdf Accessed 13 December 2014.
Posted by Gwinyai Masukume, MB ChB(UZ), Dip Obst(SA), MSc(Wits) at 2:08 AM
Monday, July 28, 2014
Brenner tumor (named after the German physician Fritz Brenner 1877 – 1969) is a rare ovarian tumor apparently derived from the surface epithelium – outer lining - of the ovary. The tumor is usually benign (not cancerous), but can occasionally be malignant (cancerous). Under the light microscope, the nuclei of Brenner tumor cells may have a longitudinal groove similar in look to the longitudinal groove of coffee beans – coffee bean nuclei.
Reference:Borah T, Mahanta RK, Bora BD, Saikia S. Brenner tumor of ovary: An incidental finding. J Midlife Health. 2011 2(1):40-1. Go to reference
Brenner tumor, Coffee beans
Posted by Gwinyai Masukume, MB ChB(UZ), Dip Obst(SA), MSc(Wits) at 11:06 AM