Tuesday, February 17, 2015

Doughnut cells

Under the light microscope in some cells of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) the nucleus is ring-shaped with a ‘central opening’ thus resembling a doughnut in look – doughnut cell.
ALCL is a rare cancer of the lymphocytes (the T-lymphocyte more precisely), a kind of white blood cell, thus the designation lymphoma. Anaplastic refers to cells that are abnormal in shape and function and large-cell pertains to the relatively big cells of this cancer.
Depending on individual circumstances treatment for ALCL can include, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, surgery, etc.
Reference:
Singh S, Gupta N, Tekta GR. Imprint cytology facilitating the diagnosis of primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma of iliac fossa. J Cytol, 2012 29(4):267-9. Go to reference

Doughnut cell, doughnut



Sunday, February 15, 2015

Herringbone pattern

Under the light microscope in classic cases of the soft tissue cancerous tumor fibrosarcoma, the cells are arranged like the way the branching spines of a herring skeleton are arranged – herringbone architecture.
An architecture in which a column of cells resembling one herring skeleton is oriented one way and another separate cell column again resembling the skeleton is disposed in a different direction. Under the microscope there can be several such columns.
Fibrosarcoma is a rare cancer typically afflicting adults and can be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. The soft tissues are those which support, connect or surround the body’s other structures.
Reference:
Folpe AL. Fibrosarcoma: a review and update. Histopathology. 2014 64(1):12-25. Go to reference

Herring, sarcoma

Saturday, December 13, 2014

Chocolate colored blood

Hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying molecule, normally exists predominantly in the ferrous state (Fe2+), which is its functional form. Hemoglobin can also exist in the ferric state (Fe3+), known as methemoglobin.
High concentrations of methemoglobin (methemoglobinemia) cause blood to appear brown and ‘chocolaty’ in color - chocolate colored blood.
Methemoglobin can occur because of heredity, exposure to drugs and chemicals.
Reference:
Ramanamurty SV. Methemoglobinemia: A Reappraisal with an Indian Perspective. Medicine Update 2013. Chapter 77. Available http://www.apiindia.org/medicine_update_2013/chap77.pdf Accessed 13 December 2014.


Blood, chocolate


Monday, July 28, 2014

Coffee bean nuclei

Brenner tumor (named after the German physician Fritz Brenner 1877 – 1969) is a rare ovarian tumor apparently derived from the surface epithelium – outer lining - of the ovary. The tumor is usually benign (not cancerous), but can occasionally be malignant (cancerous). Under the light microscope, the nuclei of Brenner tumor cells may have a longitudinal groove similar in look to the longitudinal groove of coffee beans – coffee bean nuclei.
Reference:
Borah T, Mahanta RK, Bora BD, Saikia S. Brenner tumor of ovary: An incidental finding. J Midlife Health. 2011 2(1):40-1. Go to reference

Brenner tumor, Coffee beans
 

Monday, June 2, 2014

Raisin-like nucleus

Scrapping cells off the cervix (neck of the womb) and analyzing them under the light microscope for changes that may point to the start of cancer of the cervix – Pap smear/test – has greatly reduced deaths from this cancer because treatment can be offered before the pre-cancerous changes worsen.
An abnormality that may be seen under the microscope is a cell nucleus that looks like a raisin (dried grape) – raisinoid nucleus.
The Pap smear - a screening method - is named after its inventor, the Greek doctor Georgios Papanikolaou (1883 – 1962). Most cases or cervical cancer are caused by sexually transmitted human papilloma viruses.
Reference:
Histology blog (HistoQuarterly). “Koilocytes have a clear halo around the nuclei, and the nuclei are raisinoid (literally look like raisins) [arrows] twitpic.com/cgp9ef3 Apr 2013, 8:37 a.m. Tweet. Go to reference

Pap smear/test and Raisins